Comparison of Analysis Methods

Technique Auger Electron Spectroscopy X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy
Abbreviation AES XPS or ESCA EDS
Primary Excitation Electron X-Ray Electron
Detected Secondary Auger Electron Photoelectron X-Ray
Elemental Range 3-92 3-92 6-92
Lateral Resolution 200 Å 10 µm 1 µm
Detected Depth 30 Å 30 Å 1 µm
Detection Limit 1% 1% 0.1%
Quantitative? Semi Semi Yes
Accuracy ± 30% 30% 10%
Depth Profile? Yes Yes No
Analyze Insulator No Yes Yes
Identify Organics? No Some No
Chemical State ID? Some Yes No
Technique X-Ray Fluorescence X-Ray Diffraction Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Dynamic Time - of - Flight SIMS, Static
Primary Excitation X-Ray X-Ray Ions Ions
Detected Secondary X-Ray X-Ray Substrate ions Substrate ions
Elemental Range 6-92 Crystalline materials 1-92 1-92
Lateral Resolution 1 cm 30 µm 60 µm 2000 Å
Detected Depth Bulk 0.1-10 µm 0-10 µm 15 Å
Detection Limit ppb 1% ppm ppm
Quantitative? Yes Semi Yes Semi
Accuracy ± 10% 10% 30% 100%
Depth Profile? No Yes, with angles yes No
Analyze Insulator Yes Yes Yes Yes
Identify Organics? No Some crystalline No Yes
Chemical State ID? No Yes No Molecularspecies
Technique Fourier Transform Infrared Raman Microprobe Atomic Force/ Scanning Tunnelling Microscope
Abbreviation FTIR Raman AFM/STM
Primary Excitation IR radiation Laser
Detected Secondary IR radiation Photons Surface Topography
Elemental Range NA NA NA
Lateral Resolution 10-100 µm 2 µm <0.1 Å
Detected Depth 20 Å-1µm 0.2-10 µm or more if transparent 0.1 Å (vertical resolution)
Detection Limit ppm 0.1% NA
Quantitative? Yes Poor NA
Accuracy ± 5% 100% 1-2 Å
Depth Profile? Yes Variable No
Analyze Insulator Yes Yes Yes
Identify Organics? Yes Yes No
Chemical State ID? Chemical Bond Information Molecular species No